Benign (en)


In medicine, the term “benign” is used to describe a tumor or medical condition that is non-cancerous (non-malignant) and harmless. It is the opposite of “malignant,” which refers to cancerous or harmful conditions.

Benign tumors do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). They tend to grow slowly and are generally localized.

In other words, the term “benign” is context-dependent and primarily used in medical and oncological contexts to describe non-cancerous conditions. However, it can also have broader usage in non-medical (or non-oncological) contexts to describe something that is harmless or non-threatening.

Etymology of Benign

The word “benign” originates from the Latin word “benignus,” which means kind, gentle, or mild-mannered. In medical jargon, the term can also be used to describe the personality of an individual, particularly in the case of a medical professional or mentor.

Examples in Medical Context

  1. Benign tumors can usually be removed through surgery, and the risk of recurrence is low. These tumors are typically not life-threatening, and their removal often leads to a complete cure. Unlike malignant tumors, benign tumors do not invade surrounding tissues or metastasize to distant sites. Examples
    Benign skin moles
    Lipomas (benign fatty tumors)
    Uterine fibroids
  2.  Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): A non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that commonly occurs in older men. BPH can cause urinary symptoms, but is not malignant.
  3. Benign Thyroid Nodules: Non-cancerous growths or lumps in the thyroid gland. Most thyroid nodules are benign and do not require treatment unless they cause symptoms or show signs of becoming malignant.
  4. Benign Breast Conditions: Various non-cancerous breast conditions, such as fibroadenomas (solid, benign breast tumors), cysts (fluid-filled sacs), and benign breast calcifications.
  5. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV): A common inner ear disorder characterized by brief episodes of dizziness or vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is typically harmless but can be disruptive.
  6. Benign Essential Tremor: A neurological condition characterized by uncontrollable shaking or tremors, usually in the hands. It is not life-threatening but can impact a person’s daily activities.
  7. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy: A type of childhood epilepsy characterized by seizures that typically occur during sleep and affect the face and mouth muscles. It is a benign form of epilepsy that tends to resolve with age.

Examples in Non-Medical Context

  1. Benign Climate: It refers to a mild or gentle climate that is pleasant and comfortable, without extreme temperatures or weather conditions.
  2. Benign Intentions: It describes someone’s harmless or well-meaning intentions, indicating that their actions or motives are not harmful or malicious.
  3. Benign Influence: It signifies a positive and non-threatening influence on a person or situation. For example, a mentor or role model who provides guidance and support without exerting control or causing harm.
  4. Benign Environment: It refers to a safe and non-threatening environment that poses no danger or risk to individuals. For instance, a workplace or community that promotes a sense of security and well-being.
  5. Benign Technology: It describes technology or software that is safe to use, without posing any significant risks or threats to users’ privacy, security, or well-being.
  6. Benign Competition: It signifies healthy and fair competition that fosters growth, cooperation, and improvement without causing harm or animosity.

These examples illustrate how the term “benign” can be applied outside of the medical field to describe something that is harmless, non-threatening, or having positive attributes.


In medicine, “benign” refers to a non-cancerous condition or tumor that is harmless and does not invade nearby tissues or metastasize. It is the opposite of “malignant.” Benign tumors can be surgically removed with a low risk of recurrence. Examples include benign skin moles, uterine fibroids, and lipomas.

In a broader context, “benign” can also be used to describe something that is non-threatening or harmless outside of the medical field. Examples include benign climate, benign intentions, benign influence, benign environment, and benign technology. These non-medical examples highlight situations or attributes that are considered safe, positive, and without significant risks or threats.

The etymology of “benign” traces back to the Latin word “benignus,” meaning kind or gentle. It can also be used to describe the personality of individuals, particularly in the medical profession.

Overall, the term “benign” is versatile and context-dependent, used to describe non-cancerous conditions in medicine and to denote harmlessness or non-threatening characteristics in various non-medical contexts.

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